Scorpions are truly amazing creatures. They inhabit tropical forests, rainforests, grasslands, savanna, temperate forests, caves over 800m below the surface of the earth, and snow-covered mountains more than 5,500m in altitude. In some habitats they are the most successful predators in terms of density and diversity. They can survive extreme temperatures, from below freezing to above 50°C. Some species can be totally submerged under water for more than 48 hours without suffering any ill effects. Of the 2,352 or so scorpion species known in the world, southern Africa has more than 135 species, widely distributed from the deserts of Namibia to the dune forests of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. They occur in every terrestrial habitat except the high mountain peaks of Lesotho. About six species occur on average in a localised area. Of the described species of scorpions in the world, 25 are known to have caused human fatalities. Excluding bees and snakes, scorpions kill more people per year than any other nonparasitic animal. Southern Africa also is inhabited by highly venomous scorpions. Scorpions of Southern Africa describes scorpion anatomy and behaviour, their strategies to survive harsh conditions, the scorpion's use of venom, and other aspects of their successful existence over millions of years.